Is it important what we do and how we do it when thinking about church services? I think its vitally important or we will slip into either mysticism or hypocrisy. The Jerusalem Temple had music to accompany its mysterious symbolism and redemptive themes expressed in shadows but not the synagogue. Both the synagogue and early church service were devoid of congregational singing and musical instrumentation. Some, no doubt, will see in the N.T. reference to “songs” and “melodies” but these are different than most Christians’ current practice. The reference in 1 Cor. 14.26 is to a Psalm as recitation not to a musical song. Also, in Eph. 5.19 it is unclear whether the singing is from the heart or in the heart. What is clear is that Paul is not speaking of doing the singing in assembly. No evidence has been found of a music component in the early church service. Instead, discipleship in the form of reading, teaching, and applying the message to others was the pattern laid down by Paul in 1 Tim. 4.13.
Apart from the first century Synagogue of Capernaum, the only other known synagogues from this period were found at Masada, Herodium, Gamla and Magdala. In Jerusalem, the Theodotus Synagogue inscription, dating from the same time, was found, but no remains of the actual synagogue have been found. The inscription reads: “Theodotos son of Vettenus, priest and head of the synagogue…The Synagogue of Capernaum — Ritmeyer Archaeological Design